Tinius Digest July 2021

Tinius Digest

Tinius Digest report on changes, trends and developments within the media business at large. These are our key findings from last month.

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Insight July 2021

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Reading fake news is changing people's behavior

Fake news stories about the pandemic do have a real impact on people’s health behavior. This is the first large study to support this assumption.  

Download the study.

Three main findings:

1

Small but significant effect

A single exposure to fabricated news stories about the pandemic resulted in a small but significant effect on intentions to engage in some of the behaviors targeted by the stories.

2

More hesitant

Participants who saw a fabricated story about privacy concerns with a national contact tracing app were 5 percent less willing to download the app.

3

Warnings shows no effect

Providing a general warning about fake news did not change responses to the fake stories and is unlikely to combat online misinformation effectively. These are warnings often used by governments and social media companies.

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WHO's six guiding principles for AI

WHO has published its first global report on artificial intelligence in health. The report results from two years of consultations held by a panel of international experts appointed by WHO. 

The principles aim to ensure that AI’s full potential for healthcare and public health will be used for the benefit of all.

Download the report.

The six principles:

1

Protecting human autonomy

Humans should remain in control of healthcare systems and medical decisions; privacy and confidentiality should be protected, and patients must give valid informed consent through appropriate legal frameworks for data protection.

2

Promoting human well-being and safety and the public interest

The designers of AI technologies should satisfy regulatory requirements for safety, accuracy and efficacy for well-defined use cases or indications. Measures of quality control in practice and quality improvement in the use of AI must be available.

3

Ensuring transparency, explainability and intelligibility

Transparency requires that sufficient information be published or documented before the design or deployment of an AI technology. Such information must be easily accessible and facilitate meaningful public consultation and debate on how the technology is designed and how it should or should not be used.

4

Fostering responsibility and accountability

Although AI technologies perform specific tasks, it is the responsibility of stakeholders to ensure that they are used under appropriate conditions and by appropriately trained people.

5

Ensuring inclusiveness and equity

Inclusiveness requires that AI for health should be designed to encourage the broadest possible equitable use and access, irrespective of age, sex, gender, income, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, ability or other characteristics protected under human rights codes.

6

Promoting AI that is responsive and sustainable

Designers, developers and users should continuously and transparently assess AI applications during actual use to determine whether AI responds adequately and appropriately to expectations and requirements. Governments and companies should address anticipated disruptions in the workplace, including training for healthcare workers to adapt to AI systems and potential job losses due to the use of automated systems

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Only 1 in 4 news sources are women

A new report from Global Media Monitoring Project shows that women and the elderly are still severely underrepresented in global news media.

Download the report.

Four main findings:

1

Slow progress

25 percent of all subjects and sources are women. This is an increase of one percentage point since 2015, and the first increase since 2010.

2

Positive effect of more women reporters

Women reporters are more likely than men to turn to women subjects and sources. 31 percent of the people in traditional news covered by women reporters are female, in contrast to 24 percent of male reporters’ subjects and sources in stories. 

 

3

Elderly overlooked

Despite being particularly vulnerable during the pandemic, only 3 percent of the sources were above 80 years in newspapers, and in television news, less than 1 percent were above 80 years of age. Women 80+ were even more invisible than the men in that age group.

4

Men 50+ still dominate print news

42 percent of all people in print news in 2020 were men over the age of 50. Men peak in visibility on print at 50 to 64 years. Women above 50 have become more invisible.

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Pandemic resulted in higher costs of data breaches

IBM Security has published its annual report about the cost of data breaches. The report is based on both survey data and information about data breaches reported by over 500 organizations.

Download the report.

Three main findings:

1

More expensive

In 2021, a typical data breach experienced by companies costs $4.24 million per incident. The most significant breaches impacting top enterprise firms reached an average of $401 million to resolve.

2

Compromised credentials

The most common attack vector for enterprises experiencing a data breach was compromised credentials, either taken from data dumps posted online, sold on, or obtained through brute-force attacks.

3

287 days

The average to detect and contain a data breach is 287 days. This is seven days longer than last year. On average, an organization will not detect intrusion for up to 212 days, and then they will not be able to fully resolve the issue until an additional 75 days has passed.

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More harmful video content in non-English speaking countries

Mozilla has conducted a crowdsourced study of YouTubes recommendation algorithm, with 37.000+ YouTube users participating.

Download the study.

Three main findings:

1

Harmful content still spreading

The study identified 3.362 videos from 91 countries as being harmful. This includes misinformation, hate speech, spam/scam and violent or graphic content.

2

Non-English speakers are hit the hardest

The rate of harmful content is 60 percent higher in countries that do not have English as a primary language.

3

The algorithm is the problem

71 percent of the harmful content reported came from videos recommended by YouTube’s automatic recommendation system. Several of them violated YouTube’s guidelines.

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No evidence of widespread radicalization on YouTube

Researchers studying 300.000 American YouTube viewers from 2016-2019 suggest that radicalization is not widespread – most seem to stick to their ideological corners.

Download the study.

Three main findings:

1

Mainstream content dominates

Political news consumption on YouTube is dominated by mainstream and largely centrist sources. Consumers of far-right content, while more engaged than average, represent a small and stable percentage of news consumers.

2

Increased consumption of anti-liberal content

Consumption of anti-liberal (‘anti-woke’) content grew steadily in popularity. This content is defined in terms of its opposition to progressive intellectual and political agendas and correlates with the consumption of far-right content off-platform.

3

Ideological corners

The study finds no evidence that engagement with far-right content is caused by YouTube recommendations systematically. There is also no clear evidence that anti-liberal channels serve as a gateway to the far right. Instead, the consumption of political content on YouTube appears to reflect individual preferences that extend across the web as a whole.

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